General information resources for earthquakes science. What Causes Earthquakes? For books , look in general introductory geology text books such as:.
Norton see chapter 4. A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes. Hyndman, Donald W. Or search the online catalog for geology and engineering books on earthquakes such as:. Brumbaugh, David S. For books , search the online catalog for such as these:. Bernard, Eddie N. Parker, Bruce B. The English Merchant Adventurers are granted a trade monopoly with the Netherlands. He finds a local Arab merchant who is able to interpret for him. May 23 — Girolamo Savonarola, ruler of Florence, is executed for criticizing the Pope.
Summer — The final Wel. Nankai megathrust earthquakes are great megathrust earthquakes that occur along the Nankai megathrust — the fault under the Nankai Trough — which forms the plate interface between the subducting Philippine Sea Plate and the overriding Amurian Plate part of the Eurasian Plate , which dips beneath southwestern Honshu, Japan.
All of. These have high destructive potential, and thus are a focus of earthquake preparation. History Hi. Earthquakes M5. As indicated below, magnitude is measured on the Richter magnitude scale M or the moment magnitude scale M , or the surface wave magnitude scale M for very old earthquakes. The present list is not exhaustive, and reliable and precise magnitude data is scarce for earthquakes that occurred prior to the development of modern measuring instruments.
Geological background The islands comprising the Japanese Archipelago were separated from mainland Asia by back-arc spreading The islands of Japan are primarily the result of several large oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene as a result of the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the continental Amurian Plate and Okinawa Plate to the south, and subduction of the P.
A depiction of wave shoaling This article lists notable tsunamis, which are sorted by the date and location that the tsunami occurred. Because of seismic and volcanic activity associated with tectonic plate boundaries along the Pacific Ring of Fire, tsunamis occur most frequently in the Pacific Ocean, but are a worldwide natural phenomenon. They are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes, where they can be caused by landslides and glacier calving.
Very small tsunamis, non-destructive and undetectable without specialized equipment, occur frequently as a result of minor earthquakes and other events. Around BCE, a tsunami caused by the eruption of Thira devastated the Minoan civilization on Crete and related cultures in the Cyclades, as well as in areas on the Greek mainland facing the eruption, such as the Argolid. The oldest recorded tsunami occurred in BCE. It destroyed a Persian army that was attacking the town of Potidaea in Greece.
Historical earthquakes is a list of significant earthquakes known to have occurred prior to the beginning of the 20th century. As the events listed here occurred before routine instrumental recordings, they rely mainly on the analysis of written sources. There is often significant uncertainty in location and magnitude and sometimes date for each earthquake. The number of fatalities is also often highly uncertain, particularly for the older events.
Many historic earthquakes bear the name "Nankai" or "Nankaido", as specific epicenters were known at the time. Often quakes take on the Japanese era name along with location such as Nankaido. This is a timeline of Japanese history, comprising important legal, territorial and cultural changes and political events in Japan and its predecessor states. Coastline Changes: A Global Review. Detailed information and descriptions for the coast of each country in the world; describes categories of coastal change, and emphasizes the importance of monitoring coastline changes. Black, K. Paterson and A. Cramp eds.
Sedimentary Processes in the Intertidal Zone. Geological Society Special Publication Geological Society of London, pp. Comprehensive descriptions of the intertidal zone, its importance in beach and dune evolution, and its role in the coastal system, plus information about ecology, fauna, erosion, sediment processes, and fluid movements. Cambers, G. Coping with Beach Erosion. Useful for beach users, builders and homeowners; covers coastal hazards, how to select coastal property, and how to protect beaches.
Coastlines of the Caribbean. Carey, A. Oliver, reprint , Nabu. This book includes everything from beach problems, erosion, biology, marshes, tides, and coastal engineering to history. Carter, R. Academic Press, pp. Topics include: coastal development, water supply and waste disposal, energy resources and coastal water management, coastal water management for recreation, coastal management of storm hazards, and sea-level rise.
Woodroffe eds. Cambridge University Press, pp. A guide to coastal environments from a physical basis, through their ecology to their cultural, economic and social development, concentrating on at-risk coastal environments. Case, G. Challinor, H. Sherkin Island Marine Station, pp. Illustrated, pocket-sized book ideal for those who enjoy a stroll on beaches. Descriptions are detailed enough to be useful to both the amateur and the professional. Chen, J. Engineered Coasts. Springer Netherlands, pp. Discusses the variety of changes already made, due to population, coastal erosion, building, beach replenishment, etc.
The case studies presented are mainly from China, Japan, The Netherlands, and the United States, all countries with extensively engineered shorelines. Chough, S. Lee, and S. Yoon, Marine Geology of Korean Seas 2nd edition. Clayton, T. University of North Carolina Press, pp. The author also informs about the risks of living next to this shore. Coast Alliance, Coast Alert: Scientists Speak Out.
Friends of the Earth, pp. Coates, D. Coastal Geomorphology 3rd edition. State University of New York at Binghamton, pp. Cooper, J. Lough Swilly: A Living Landscape. Four Courts Press, pp. Includes geology, biology, archeology, oceanography and aquaculture; illustrated in color. Pilkey eds. A series of case studies from around the globe exploring the pitfalls of a variety of efforts to stabilize developed shorelines in an effort to protect beachfront property from shoreline erosion and storm damage.
Cornish, J. The Northumberland Coast. Frances Lincoln Ltd. Collection of photos of the picturesque English coast of Northumberland. Aurum, pp. Coulombe, D. Touchstone, pp. A handy book that can be used for just about any age group to learn more about and to enjoy the wonders of the seashore. Illustrations and quizzes are included.
Courteau, C. Describes the tides and life at the interface between the marine and terrestrial environments. Includes photographs of birds and marine species. Cracknell, B. Phillimore, pp. Discusses sea level changes, temperature changes, and the fact that the whole world faces the problem of global warming. Cronkite, W.
Norton, pp. Cronkite describes history, people, islands, bird sanctuaries, forts, and more from his travels around the coasts, both as a sailor and a land-lubber.
follow Crossland, C. Kremer, H. Lindeboom, et al. A more technical book about the ever-changing and threatened global coastal zone; identifies issues that need to be addressed in the world; the final chapter considers the ramifications of such findings for policy- and decision-makers involved in governing and managing the coastal zone. Davidson, B. Strand photographer , Aperture, New Ed, pp. A photographic journey around the island of South Uist off the west coast of Scotland, depicting landscapes and people.
Davidson-Arnott, R. Introduction to Coastal Processes and Geomorphology. Consists of three parts. Part I, Introduction; Part II, Coastal Processes including sea level fluctuations, waves and sediment transport; and Part III, Coastal Systems, which includes the beach, dunes, coral reefs, salt marshes, barrier islands and rocky coasts. Davis, R. Beaches of the Gulf Coast. Including beaches of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, Davis explains the dynamics of beach formation, how beaches change, and compares natural beaches with those that have been replenished or engineered in other ways.
Sea Level Change in the Gulf of Mexico. Written for the general public; a global view of sea level rise, causes and rates of sea level change; discusses shoreline processes along the Gulf of Mexico. Prentice-Hall, pp. Provides the reader with an understanding of coastal environments and the fundamental principles that govern the nature and development of coastal environments. Includes chapters on sea level change, coastal processes, estuaries, sandy coasts, river deltas, rocky coasts, and human intervention in coastal environments.
Geology of Holocene Barrier Island Systems. Springer-Verlag, pp. Describes all types of barriers in all geologic settings while concentrating on the coast of the United States. The Evolving Coast. Scientific American Library, pp. Explores the evolution, nature, and dynamics of coastal systems — from rugged cliffs to wide sandy beaches, to deltas, coastal bays, estuaries, lagoons, and barrier islands. Davis focuses on influences that shape coastlines, including sea level changes and plate tectonics.
Fitzgerald, Beaches and Coasts. Blackwell, pp. Though designed for introductory students, it is appropriate for many upper level courses. Dean, C. Columbia University Press, pp. It illustrates how we rescue buildings at the expense of beaches and puts the problem in a national perspective. Dean, R. Dalrymple, Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications.
A broad view of nearshore processes from an engineering viewpoint; sprinkled with equations; discussions of coastal engineering structures. Devoy, R. Croom Helm, pp. A pioneering book about sea level changes, coastal changes, and geodynamics, useful for anyone with an interest in climate change, geology, marine science and related topics. Douglas, S. World Scientific, pp. Duck, R. Dundee University Press, pp.
Dutt, W. Unwin, pp. Dyer, K. Coastal and Estuarine Sediment Dynamics.
Textbook; discusses the three general approaches to sediment transport: geological, oceanographic, and engineering; explains the concepts and complex interactions of waves, currents, the particles mud, sand, gravel , and the sea bed from the continental shelf to the nearshore zone. Emery, K. This book with over figures offers an in-depth look at the interrelationships of geography, topography, and lithology, plus sediments, organic matter, and production potential of the continental shelf and beaches.
Fabri, P. Coastlines of Italy. The authors of this collection of papers, a volume of the Coastlines of the World Series O. Magoon, series ed. Fisher, S. Recreation and the Sea. Essays discuss the history of maritime recreation and leisure travel, with photographs and diagrams included. Fitzgerald, D. Rosen eds. Glaciated Coasts. The geomorphology of various complex glaciated coasts, with their related embayments, such as estuaries and fjords, and gravel beach environments is discussed.
Fox, W. An excellent, non-technical, illustrated introduction to coastal processes, meteorology, environments, and ecology. French, P. Coastal Defences: Processes, Problems and Solutions. Routledge, pp. A survey of the hard and soft methods that engineers use to protect the coastline, along with a case for and against each method.
Funnell, C. Knopf, pp. Gambolati, G. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. A technical volume that addresses all aspects of the coastline of the upper Adriatic, such as flooding, storm surge and winds, sediment transport, sea level rise prediction using models, modeling natural land subsidence, coastal morphodynamics, and controlling coastal erosion. Gibson, J. Bradford, revised, Northings, pp. A colourful guide about the wild Orkney coast; text and photos. Gilbert, E. Methuen, pp. History of the English seaside resort town of Brighton, sometimes known as London by the Sea; describes the life and times of the town, the shingle beach, the famous pier, the weather, and just about everything else about the town on the Sussex coastal plain.
Gillis, J. T he Human Shore: Seacoasts in History. University of Chicago Press, pp. A broad account of more than , years of seaside civilization, with some interesting photographs and illustrations. Godfrey, P. Godfrey, National Park Service, pp. This pioneering book has been around for decades and now is available on-line; discusses barrier island evolution, Cape Lookout and its inlets, dunes, marshes, and maritime forests.
Gornitz, V. Rising Seas: Past, Present and Future. The most up-to-date, comprehensive and well-written survey of the causes and effects and the future of sea level rise; includes discussions of past sea level changes and relates them to the present situation. Green, R.
Looks at how changes due to unsympathetic development and modification of the natural landscape are perceived to negatively impact on the character of small coastal towns; of interest to planners, environmental designers, and scholars. Greenberg, G. Voyageur Press, pp. Combining art with science, Dr. Greenberg studied and photographed grains of sand with microphotography. Griggs, G. University of California Press, pp. An earlier version: Griggs, G.
Savoy eds. Living with the California Coast. Duke University Press, pp. Hannah, I. This volume of the County Coast Series describes local history and lore, formation of this southern length of the English coast, geology, shoreline changes, and the like. Hayes, M. Black Tides. University of Texas Press, pp. A discussion of oil spills all around the world, interspersed with personal adventures, including survival from a plane crash near Petersburg, Alaska. The author even includes poetry and a good deal of philosophical thinking.
Michel, Pandion Books, pp. Investigates the changing face of the South Carolina coastline through erosion, hurricanes and climate change; explores the origins of coastal features such as barrier islands, estuaries, and the mysteries of Carolina bays. Everything you want to know about the SC coast written by the team that knows it best. Heath, S. Hildebrand, L. C oastlines of Canada. This volume is one of a series on Coastlines of the World, edited by Orville T. Hinrichsen, D. Explores coasts throughout the world and discusses population growth, fisheries, pollution, coastal management, sustainability, sustainable development, and how humans are altering and largely degrading the coastal ecosystems.
Each regional profile includes a Conclusions section offering management recommendations.
Jones, A. Phillips eds. CABI, pp. Includes international case studies illustrating how popular tourist destinations may be lost to climate change and increased tourism. Of interest for coastal management, ecotourism, and marine conservation. Kelley, J.
Pilkey and J. Cooper eds. Geological Society of America, pp. Collection of case studies of individual beaches; provides a look at the mismanagement of our shoreline and some unanticipated outcomes of such management, with emphasis on the barrier-island shoreline of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts; can provide a basis for managing coastal development in the face of a rising sea level. King, C. This classic and ground-breaking book offers a comprehensive description of beaches and coastal systems, including discussions of geomorphology, longshore currents, spits, barrier islands, and tides.
Knight, J. University of Ulster, pp. Field guide for the excursion component of the International Coastal Symposium ICS , hosted by the Coastal Research Group of the University of Ulster at Coleraine, Northern Ireland, March ; includes information on low and high energy coasts, the geology and physical aspects of the coasts, and the effects of glaciation and sea level change.
Komar, P. Beach Processes and Sedimentation, 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, pp. Includes information gathered from two decades of science and engineering in the field, reflecting the vast increase in knowledge since the first edition; a highly quantitative volume; discusses the rise of coastal zone management, wave patterns, and sediment movements that change the beach profile. Moore, Editor-in-Chief discusses the processes that produce coastal erosion, including physical processes such as waves, currents, and sand transport; erosion caused by jetties and breakwaters; and sea cliff erosion; provides discussions of beach replenishment and computer models of shoreline changes.
Coastlines of the Black Sea. A volume of the Coastlines of the World Series O. Krumbein, W. A Manual of Sedimentary Petrography. The bible of techniques for studying beach sand, including heavy minerals, grain size analysis, and classical statistical analysis. A must for those studying sedimentology of beaches. Landrin, A. Les Plages de la France. Librairie de L.
Hachette ET Cie. This antique book deals particularly with the flora and fauna of French beaches and the nearshore waters, e. Out of print. Leatherman, S.
Fletemeyer eds. Presents research from numerous scientists and others that describe the technical aspects of rip currents, hydrodynamic processes, and rip current hazard mitigation. Coastal Education and Research Foundation, pp.